Thursday, August 22, 2019
Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development Essay Holistic development: The first month Physical development The gross motor skills that the baby of 0-1 month old will develop is that the baby lies supine (on his or her back) and the fine motor skills will be the baby turns his or her head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. Communication and language development Babies need to respond to sounds, especially familiar voices. And babies need to share language experiences and cooperate with others from birth onwards. From the start babies need other people. Intellectual development Babies explore through their senses and through their own activity and movement. Touch From the beginning babies feel pain. Sound Even a new born baby will turn to a sound. The baby might become still and listen to a low sound, or quicken his or her movements when he or she hears a high sound. Taste The baby likes sweet tastes, e. g. breast milk. Smell The baby turns to the smell of the breast. Sight The baby can focus on objects 20cm away. Emotional and social development A babyÃ¢â¬â¢s first smile in definite response to carer is usually around 3-6 weeks. Also the baby often imitates certain facial expressions. This is showing that the baby is starting to develop being able to respond to different things. Holistic development: from one to four months Physical development Some of the gross motor skills that the babies develop from four to eight weeks are: the baby can now turn from side to back, and can also lift its head briefly from the prone position. Some of the fine motor skills that the babies develop from four to eight weeks are; the baby turns its head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. Some of the gross motor skills the baby develops form eight to twelve weeks are; when lying supine, the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s head is in a central position and it can also lift its head and chest off a bed in prone position, supported on forearms. Some of the fine motor skills the baby develops from eight to twelve weeks are; the baby moves his or her head to follow adult movements and the baby watches his or her hands and plays with his or her fingers. Communication and language development From four to eight weeks the baby recognises the carer and familiar objects, makes non-crying noises such as cooing and gargling and then moves on to often sucking or licking its lips when he or she hears the sound of food in preparation. From eight to twelve weeks the baby is still distressed by sudden loud noises and often sucks or licks its lips when he or she hears the sound of food in preparation. Intellectual development The baby recognises differing speech sounds and by three months the baby can even imitate low or high pitched sounds. Emotional and social development The baby will smile in response to an adult and the baby enjoys sucking. Then the baby shows enjoyment at caring routines such as bath time. Holistic development from four to six months Physical development Some of the gross motor skills; the baby is beginning to use a palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand. It is very interested in all activity and everything is taken to the mouth. Some of the fine motor skills; the baby now has good head control and is beginning to sit with support. It can roll over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects. And when supine the baby plays with his or her own feet. Communication and language development The baby becomes more aware of others so he or she communicates more and more. As the baby listens, he or she imitates sounds he or she can her and reacts to the tone of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. For example, the baby might become upset by an angry tone, or cheered by a happy tone. Intellectual development By four months the baby reaches for objects, which suggest they recognise and judge the distance in relation to the size of the object. The baby prefers complicated things to look at from five to six months and enjoys bright colours. The baby also knows that he or she has one mother. The baby is disturbed if he or she is shown several images of his or her mother at the same time. The baby realises that people are permanent before they realise that objects are. Emotional and social development The baby shows trust and security and has recognisable sleep patterns. Holistic development from six to nine months Some of the gross motor skills; the baby can roll from front to back. He or she may attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards. Also the baby may grasp their feet and place them in his or her mouth. Some of the fine motor skills; the baby is very alert to people and objects. The baby is beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and finger, and can transfer toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects. Communication and language development Babble becomes tuneful, like the lilt of the language the baby can hear. They become to understand words like Ã¢â¬ËupÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdownÃ¢â¬â¢, raising their arms to be lifted up and using appropriate gestures. The baby may also be able to repeat sounds. Intellectual development The baby understands signs, e. g. the bib means that food is coming. From eight to nine months the baby shows that he or she knows objects exist when they have gone out of sight, even under test conditions. This is called the concept of object constancy, or the object permanence test (Piaget). The baby is also fascinated by the way objects move. Emotional and social development The baby can manage to feed him- or herself using his or her fingers. They are now more wary of strangers, sometimes showing stranger fear. For example if a stranger comes close to the baby and it moves away towards another person, this shows that the baby is fearful of strangers and gains security from the person it moves to. Also the baby might show distress when his or her mother leaves. For example if the mother leaves the room and the baby starts crying, then this shows that the baby feels insecure when the mother is out of sight. Holistic development from nine to twelve months Physical development Gross motor skills; the baby will now be mobile- may be crawling, bear-walking, bottom shuffling or even walking. The baby can sit up on his or her own and lean forward to pick things up. Also the baby may crawl upstairs and onto low items of furniture and may even bounce in rhythm to music. Fine motor skills; the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s pincer grasp is now well developed and he or she can pick things up and pull them towards him or her. The baby can poke with one finger and will point to desired objects. They can also clasp hands and imitate adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions. Communication and language development The baby can follow simple instructions e. g. kiss teddy. Word approximations appear e. g. Ã¢â¬Ëhee hawÃ¢â¬â¢ to indicate a donkey, or more typically Ã¢â¬ËmummaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËdaddaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëbye-byeÃ¢â¬â¢ in English speaking contexts. Also the tuneful babble develops into Ã¢â¬ËjargonÃ¢â¬â¢ and the baby makes his or her voice go up and down just as people do when they talk to each other. Intellectual development The baby is beginning to develop images. Memory develops and the baby and remember the past. The baby can anticipate the future. This give it some understanding of routine daily sequences, e. g. after a feed, changing, and a sleep with teddy. Also the baby imitates actions, sounds, gestures and moods after an event is finished, e. g. imitate a temper tantrum he or she saw a friend have the previous day, wave bye-bye remembering Grandma has gone to the shops. Emotional and social development The baby enjoys songs and action rhymes, still likes to be near to a familiar adult but will also play alone for long periods of time. Spiritual aspects of a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s development Even a tiny baby experiences a sense of self, and values people who are loved by them. Spiritually is about the developing sense of relationship with self, relating to others ethically, morally and humanly and a relationship with the universe. The baby can drink from a cup with help, and shows definite likes and dislikes at mealtimes and bedtimes. Also the baby will start to cooperate when being dressed and likes to look at him- or herself in a mirror (plastic safety mirror). Holistic development from one to two years Physical development Gross motor skills (15 months); the baby probably walks alone now, with feet wide apart and arms raised to maintain balance. He or she is likely to fall over and often sit down suddenly. The baby can also probably manage stairs and steps, but will need supervision. Gross motor skills (18 months); the child walks confidently and is able to stop without falling. The child can also kneel, squat, climb and carry things around with him or her. Fine motor skills (15months); the baby can build with a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor, can hold a crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of a book at once, and can also point to a desired object. Fine motor skills (18 months); the child can thread large beads, build a tower of several cubes and uses a pincer grasp to pick up small objects. Communication and language development The child begins to talk with words or sign language, and by 18 months, the child enjoys trying to sing as well as to listen to songs and rhymes. Action songs (e. g. Ã¢â¬Ëpat-a-cakeÃ¢â¬â¢) are much loved. Intellectual development The child understands the names of objects and can follow simple instructions, the child also learns about other things through trial and error. Emotional and social development The child begins to have a longer memory and develops a sense of identity (I am me). Also the child expresses his or her needs in words and gestures and enjoys being able to walk, and is eager to try to get dressed Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËMe do it! Ã¢â¬â¢ Holistic development from two to three years Physical development Gross motor skills; the child is very mobile, can run safely and can climb up onto furniture. The child can walk up and downstairs, usually two feet to a step. The child then moves on to being able to jump from a low step, walk backwards and sideways and can stand and walk on his or her tiptoes and stand on one foot. In my workplace all of the children this age are able to do all of these things. But the girls are all more developed than the boys. For example, with have a boy that is three years of age, and a girl thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the same. The girl is able to write her name, speak fluently, help other children who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as well developed as her and she even tells me when someone is doing something wrong. Whereas the boy can hardly speak yet, and when he does no one can understand what heÃ¢â¬â¢s saying. Michael Gurian, a noted educator and author, has shown through research that Ã¢â¬Å"hard-wiring and socialized gender differences affect how boys and girls learn. Ã¢â¬ Simply put, male and female brains are equal but different. Ã¢â¬Å"Boys use the right hemisphere more, and girls the left,Ã¢â¬ (Gurian, M. 2007) Fine motor skills; the child can draw circles, lines and dots using preferred hand. The child can pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp. The child then moves on to being able to build tall towers of bricks or blocks and can control a pencil using thumb and first two fingers (a dynamic tripod grasp).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Crime and Voilence in Jamamica Essay The Primary Factors Contributing to Crime and Violence in Jamaica. Jamaica is a society which has been affected by crime and violence over the past years, and is continuously been affect by this phenomenal. Crime and violence involves the intent or use of psychological and physical force or power against oneself or another to do harm (Hoffman, 2009). Jamaica is a country plagued by crime and violence, especially in urban areas. Jamaica since 1977 has become the Caribbean nation with the highest homicide rate in its citizenry and continues to hold this position (Harriott, 2007. ) The primary contributing factors for crime and violence in Jamaica is a challenge to identify as crime and violence can thrive in so many environments. However the proximate or primary factors can be classified as; corruption, demographics, unemployment, destabilized family, weak justice system, an interconnecting network of criminal gangs, drugs running, politics and the police. According to Harriott, Demographics are a background factor which is contributing to crime and violent in Jamaica. In Jamaica the age group 15-29 is held responsible for most of the violent crimes committed within the country. In particular males in this age group are the prime offenders, they are also prime victims. Over the past years the age group 15-29 has being expanding rapidly. As a result the factor behind our high crime rate is the huge population of ages 15 -29. Due to this high percentage in the age group 15-25 there is an increase in juvenile and violent crime especially where there is the availability of guns. Harriott further stated that we currently experiencing the worst demographic factor for m 1985, and this will continue until 2020 where we are expected to see an 87 per cent decline of its 1995 size. Urbanization is the second factor, which in order to understand the demographics factors one must associate the two factors. Coming from being 30 per cent urban in 1960, Jamaica was about 60 per cent urban in the year 2000. There is also a process of secondary urbanization in St James (3.7 per cent), Mandeville (3.1 per cent), St Ann (2.4 per cent), and Kingston and St Andrew (2.3 per cent) which had the largest percentage increase in population between 1996 and 1998. From these figures above one can say that there is a decline in the rural population and an increase growth for secondary urbanization, in the tourist and bauxite towns of Montego Bay, Mandeville, and Ocho Rios. All parish capitals are experiencing urbanizations; as a result the high risk group (ages 15-29) is being increasingly compacted in dense, poor, urban neighborhoods, (Slums). This problem points to potential for high crimes rates in Kingston and St Andrew and St Catherine, which is also exported to other developing urban centers. High rate of youth employment is also one of the leading factors of crime and violent in Jamaica. The rate of unemployment in Jamaica is 17.5 per cent. . Unemployment in Jamaica especially among Jamaican teen leads to poverty, idleness, low self-esteem, frustration, and eventually crime and violence according to Don Anderson survey. Employment is seen as the way to survive so without work youths tends to be weaken and consequently this leads to idleness, which leads to badness, gang wars, and crime and violence. Youths also admits that they would have less time and energy to steal and commit other crimes if they were working. Harriott stated that in 1998 the unemployment rate for 14-29 age groups was 26.5 per cent. This rate consists of 18.9 per cent young males, and 35 per cent young females. (Anderson 1998). The unemployment rate for young males (14-29) in Kingston Metropolitan Area was 17.8 per cent in 1998, compared to 26.5 per cent in other towns and 17 per cent in rural areas. In St A Andrew and Kingston there is a pressure on young males for economic support form baby mothers, mothers, siblings and other family members. This is one of the reasons for robbery, car theft, pick pocketing in the Corporate Area. (Gayle 1999). The high unemployment rate in other rapidly urbanizing inner-city areas such as Ocho Rios, May Pen, Mandeville, Montego Bay and Savanna-la-mar, also will lead to crime disaster as in Kingston and St Andrew. Employment is seen as very beneficiary and not been employed in Jamaica especially its youths can lead to crime and violence among males, and teenage pregnancy and dependency on men, abuse and domestic violence for female. Destabilized family structure including poor parenting can also be look at as a factor that contributes to crime and violence in Jamaica. Jamaican society has been often referred to as a matrifocal society. Many families are female headed households without the presence of a male figure. Children from these household manifest a number of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, including sadness, depression, delinquency, aggression, sex role difficulties, early initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy, as well as poor social and adoptive functioning and low self-esteem. The absence of guidance in parental or societal role models leaves a gap which is filled by peer groups, particular among men. According to the Grace Kennedy Foundation lecture (1991), Ã¢â¬Ëpeer groupÃ¢â¬â¢ actually replaces mother and fathers as the controlling agents. Traditional role models become replaced by gun and this result in the emergence of Dons and Robin hoods. Low self-esteem is also a consequence of poor parenting. Youths with low self-esteem carve respect from peers and others, and if been disrespected this can fuel problems among individuals. Harriott however stated that countering this however is the gun, which notes Ã¢â¬Å"the ultimate guarantor of respectÃ¢â¬ . With this in view the inner-city don become role model for youths, Ã¢â¬Ënot only because of their ability to command and dispense largess, but Corruption is also a crucial primary factor. According to Harriott, police that reduce unjust inequalities are likely to reduce some categories of violent crime, but research findings cast some doubts that in Jamaica they would have contribute to the murder rate due to corruption. Transparency international, measured the degree to which corruption exist among public officials and politicians, and produce an annual corruption index. For 2005 Jamaica attained a score of 3.6 out of 10 and rank 64 out of 159 countries surveyed. Organizational crime in Jamaica has been facilitated by corruption, relationship between ordinary criminal gangs and the major political institutions. Harriott further stated that gangs are key pla yers in the processes of political mobilization on the streets, securing electoral victories, and in consolidating power -often because of their hold on communities of the urban poor. This relationship leads to a flourishing of corruption, and plunder of the resources of the state. Corruption facilitates serious crimes, and endemic corruption, ensures the freedom of action to build successful criminal enterprises. This is most problematic and yet most evident in police service where corruption is endemic and institutionalized. From interviews which were conducted by Special Task on Crime selected JFC personnel from different ranks expressed the view that the majority of their senior officers were corrupt within the Force. Some of these corrupt practices among members of the force include: Contract killing or Ã¢â¬Å"murder for hire, tampering with biological exhibits, e.g. urine samples, dropping charges, including serious offences, planting evidence, providing escort for illegal drugs etc. A weak Criminal Justice System also facilitates criminal activities within the country. Where there are high levels of corruption and influence easily immunizes high-end criminals against police action. This is certainly the case in Jamaica. Moreover, the criminal justice system is, in one respect, antiquated and overload and thus unable to effectively respond to the more sophisticated criminal groups. Harriott stated that associated institutions, including the existing body of laws, are also, in some respects, antiquate for dealing with crime. The case-load of the investigative units of the police is a good indicator of the degree of immunity from law enforcement (not crime-fighting) that is enjoyed by criminals. For effectiveness, the number of investigators should be greater than the number of cases to be investigated. Instead, a single divisional homicide investigator is, for example, burdened with a case-load of twelve to fifteen homicides, and this was in 2000(PERF 2001,49). Not surprisingly, in 2004, the clear-up rate for murder 9 the number of arrests as a percentage of all reported murders) was 44.8 per cent, and the clear-up rate of violent crimes, that is, the most serious offence against person (murder, shootings, rape and robbery aggregated) was 39.8 per cent (PIOJ2005, 24.30). For serious crimes, the clear-up rates are poor, and given the case-loads ratios, the conviction rates are unsurprisingly low. In the case of murder, the conviction rate is estimates at less than 20 per cent. As a result the justice system in Jamaica is very weak in frightening against crime. Jamaica can be described as an interconnecting network of criminal gangs, drugs running, politics and the police. Therefore Gangs, Drugs and Politics can also be discussed as primary contributing factors to crime and violence in Jamaica. There are about forty- nine active gangs in Jamaica, but only a small number (14 per cent) are highly organized. According to Harriott the highly organized gangs are deeply involved in the following activities: trafficking cocaine, marijuana and crack, both locally and overseas. It is also said that there is a significant Colombian drugs activity in Jamaica. Another major criminal activity for criminal gangs is protection and extortion rackets in business district in Inner-city areas. Business places pay funds to gangs in order for security, that their business and their customers are not robbed. This money is an important source of income for violent criminal gangs. According to Harriott this is extortion, which is a contributor to violent crimes in Kingston and St Andrew. It is also claimed that highly organized gangs operate a quasi-judicial system, complete with Ã¢â¬Å"hearingÃ¢â¬ witness and a rough schedule of punishment, including incarceration and the death penalty. Theses criminal gangs are also allegedly engaged in the large scale illegal importation of goods such as red peas, onio ns and cooking oil. Harriott stated that is may not directly constitute violent crime, nonetheless strengthens these groups economically, weakens legitimate firms, etc. major gangs are said to be connected to the major political parties. This relationship between gang and political parties stands to be beneficial to both sides. In election gangs secure votes for political parties, and keep the peace during civil disturbances, which the most important benefit for gangÃ¢â¬â¢s from political parties is protection from police. According to Harriott the main criminal gangs and the political parties have major stake in maintaining the existing corrupt relationship. Jamaica has been significantly affected by violence and crime. Violent crimes are one of JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s major issues, for the past twenty year. According to Harriott the country has experience an overwhelming increase in murders and related assaults. The World Bank noted that crime is undermining growth, threatening human welfare, and impeding social development. Therefore the government and citizens of Jamaica has to take serious measures to reduce or eliminate the primary factors contributing to crime and violence. According to Harriott the only long term sustainable solution to the violent crimes problem in Jamaica is the recovery of the formal economy. Therefore the government must continue its programme of macroeconomic management. This may have short term negative social consequences, but in the end will lead to more job creation and a reduction in crime. Harriott further stated that the government must embark on a programme, however limited of formal economic activities in the inner city. The government could also develop a programme of physical upgrading in the inner city. This could involve fixing drains, improving sanitation, roads surfaces and housing, and beautification. This could add real value to properties in the inner city, as well as generating employment and improving the already and demoralizing physical environment. The failure of the educational system, for both the employed and unemployed have to be rectified also. One the government needs to find the causes of the high male drop- out rate. The NPC could also develop a special task force on education and training, and a mandate to begin the necessary and urgent programme of restructuring and reprogramming. The most immediate measure which can be taken by the government is to control gun and ammunition. Reference Government of Jamaica. (2007). National Security Policy Ã¢â¬â Towards a Secure and Prosperous Nation. Kingston: Government of Jamaica. Gutierrez, I. M. (2009). Development and implementation of crime and violence observatories: A tool for public policy. III Inter-American Forum on Violence Prevention and Citizen Security: Addressing Crime and Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Kingston. Jamaica: Jamaica Conference Centre. Harriott, A. D. (2008). Bending the trend line: The challenge of controlling violence in Jamaica and the high violence societies of the Caribbean. Harriott, A.D.(2008). Organized Crime and Politics in Jamaica: Breaking the Nexus. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press. Harriott, A.D. Understanding Crime in Jamaica; New challenges for public policy. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press. Hoffman, J. S. (2009). Engaging citizens in crime and violence prevention: Emerging approaches. III Inter- in American Forum on Violence Prevention and Citizen Security: Addressing Crime and Violence the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Kingston, Jamaica: Jamaica Conference Centre. McLean, J., Harriott, A., Ward, E., Buchannan, J., and Karia, R. 2008. Jamaica Community-Based Policing Assessment. Kingston: Jamaica Constabulary Force and USAID.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Method of Doubt by Descartes RenÃ © Descartes, the father of modern philosophy, adopted the method of doubt to reach the truth. Descartes philosophical attitude started in his youth when he realized that he had been accepting many false opinions for true. He wanted to get rid of all the opinions that he had accumulated over the years. Descartes wanted to build a foundation on which all further intellectual enquiries could be built. He felt reason should follow and arrive at certain philosophical truths. There should be no further doubts left after this, which meant that the foundation had to be sound. This approach was known as the Method of Doubt but his rationale and approach has been a subject of controversy for years. He believed never to accept anything as the truth, which he could not accept as obviously true. Everything should be so clearly presented to the mind that there are no doubts left at all. Anything that can be doubted has to be rejected. Reasons to believe something should be ample. The second step is to divide the subject into as many divisions as possible or whatever would help him to understand it better. The third step involved directing his thoughts, taking one step at a time, to reach the underlying complex knowledge. At the end of this, his reviews were so comprehensive, his enumerations so complete, that nothing was left to doubt. The three steps adopted by Descartes is what is adopted in mathematics. He wanted to use this method to reach the truth in philosophy. S V Keeling argues that his method as above rests on three mental operations intuition, deduction, and enumeration (cited by Burnham, 2006). These operations are based on human reason, on the ability to disseminate information, analyze, and review. Since it is based on the capability of human mind, there is a risk of error due to faulty memory. In the Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes proves the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. He also brings out the real distinction between the mind and the body. He starts this by asserting the need Ã¢â¬Å"to demolish everything completely and start again right from the foundationsÃ¢â¬ (AT 7:17). Although the first step was termed as skeptical his skepticism was not for the sake of doubting. He wanted to arrive at the truth through systematic analysis and discarding the untruth. Descartes defines knowledge in terms of doubt: I distinguish the two as follows: there is conviction when there remains some reason, which might lead us to doubt, but knowledge is conviction based on a reason so strong that it can never be shaken by any stronger reason (cited by Norman, 2005). Descartes skeptical approach is based on the principle that there is a distinction between belief and truth (Bellotti, n.d.). It was this conviction that gave rise to the Method of Doubt. After making a cup of tea one may leave it to brew on the kitchen table under the belief that it is ready to be poured and consumed. The truth may be different from the belief, in the sense, someone could have poured the tea and taken it in the meantime. The pot may be empty by this time. The Method of Doubt removes all uncertain beliefs and only beliefs that are true beliefs remain. Descartes applied this theory to a group of beliefs so that beliefs need not be dealt individually. A common characteristic could be determined but this concept again leads one to believe that doubts would be on the entire group or class of beliefs. Here Descartes uses the malicious demon thought experiment. Gassendi criticized this theory saying that Descartes could just have regarded the previous knowledge as uncertain (cited by Norman) instead of demolishing everything. It is not necessary to consider everything as false. He felt that such an approach convinces the human mind that there is a devil who tricks us. It is simpler to admit the weakness of human nature. Gassendi pointed out the universal and hyperbolic nature of the Method of Doubt. Descartes argues that it is not possible to free ourselves of all the errors that the human mind has been soaked in. He firmly believes that universal and hyperbolic nature is necessary for the Method of Doubt to succeed. Descartes in his argument to demolish everything and start afresh applies the universal character and gives the analogy of a basket full of apples. To select and retain the good ones and discard the bad ones, it is wiser to empty the basket, then select the good ones and keep them in the basket. He feels this is a better and simpler way than picking out the rotten ones from the basket full of apples. He believes in first rejecting all beliefs as if they were false and then after careful analysis, adopt only the ones, which are true. One bad apple can rot the whole basket so if we were to pick out the bad ones, there is every possibility of overlooking one bad apple. On the other hand, if the whole basket is first emptied and then the good ones placed back, we can be sure of only adopting the truth. Descartes method of doubt, as foundation of knowledge does seem more effective than what has been suggested by Gassendi. When the basket is totally empty, it can be cleaned and then fresh, good apples picked and placed in the basket. It is a much faster process than negating the bad. Secondly, when the basket is empty, the stains left behind by the rotten apples can be seen and cleaned, which is not possible when the bad apples are picked out from the lot. His argument to discard everything as false relies on his argument that the mind believes on whatever it perceives through the physical eye. He did not believe that anything should be left to imagination. This has a sound basis, as the mind cannot imagine what it has not seen. In order to support that all prior beliefs are wrong, he discussed three stages the sense, dreams and the evil demon hypothesis. Descartes asserts that these do not have the power to falsify what we Ã¢â¬Ëseem to perceive. What we see through the sense mislead us. We cannot begin with doubt. Descartes even goes to the extent of affirming that even the external world that we perceive is an illusion, a dream and hence false. The enquiry has to start after eliminating all such perceptions. The next argument that arises is whether the escape from hyperbolic provides a satisfactory foundation for knowledge? This can be explained by an analogy of a building, which requires the use of a bulldozer to demolish it. A light bulldozer would make the ground appear immovable. Hence, a bigger bulldozer is more effective, which means the more hyperbolic the doubt, the better it is. According to Descartes, the Evil Genius Doubt is the most powerful doubt. This evil genius makes us believe the false as true. For instance, the transparent truths like 2+3=5 or that a square has only four sides, are knowable. For people to know, understand, and accept these truths, they have to be firmly grounded in the face of the most powerful doubts. The evil genius tries to shake even such hyperbolic doubts. People also firmly deny the existence of God. Descartes believes that the Evil Genius Doubt is just one of the factors that can motivate the hyperbolic doubt. The basic doubt is that the human m ind is flawed, and the mind is aware that it has been distorted despite God having given a nature to turn to him. The human mind keeps remembering all the past incidents and visions, and gives them the right to occupy the mind. It is not easy to accept that the world we see everyday is an illusion. It is only through deep introspection and a strong will that a person can accept the truth that God exists and all else is false. He has to be fixed in this belief and arrive at the knowledge of truth. He has to arouse himself from the deep slumber of falsehood. The more hyperbolic the doubt, the mind is activated better. Hence, the best approach is to discard everything as false and start afresh. Descartes philosophical approach through the Method of Doubt is a sound method. It is in fact the best approach to investigation. It is an investigation of the self by the self to reach the self or the truth. To reach the truth, through the Method of Doubt, an individual has to negate the external world around him. If he feels this world to be true or feels a part of this illusionary world, he can understand or realize the existence of God. The program of demolition is not only hyperbolic but also universal in nature. To face the Evil Genius there has to be an equally powerful doubt. Escape from hyperbolic cannot provide a satisfactory foundation for knowledge. References: Bellotti T (n.d.), Descartes Mehod of Doubt, 01 April 2006 Burnham D (2006), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 01 April 2006 Newman, Lex, Descartes Epistemology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL 01 April 2006
In dealing with Prison Procedure, I feel that many things are put into perspective all the way from intake to the release of an inmate back into the community or until they have served their sentence and their time is up. Everything in a prison must be on close watch. The workers should be watched just as well as the inmates. All the prisons procedures should be followed under a very strict manner to ensure that the prison functions properly and effectively. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Prison procedure should be very strict in every aspect pertaining to the institution. From the intake, the guards should evaluate every inmate entering the facility and then place them accordingly. There are many different things to look at when considering the placement of an inmate. The age and the nature of the offense are some key ones, also their race. All entering inmates must have full cavity searches prior to being placed in a cell; this is for guard and inmate safety purposes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In running the prison the prison should be well advanced and should have only skilled and trained workers working under the institution. There should be no excuse for not knowing the proper prison procedures and rules. Punishment should be inflicted on those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t abide be them, for both the workers and the inmates. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In considering the proper procedure you should think about the inmateÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and how to control them. There are many things that can be done to maintain a controllable environment for an institution. Treating the inmates fair and just is one way to not get over emotional inmates that might cause a problem. Another way is providing work opportunities and other recreational activities to keep the inmates busy and to help pass the time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The inmates should undergo regular room inspections to inspect for any items or belongings that the prison feels is a threat and that the inmate should not be allowed to have, like any illegal substances or drugs and also weapons or any item that could be used as a weapon should be seized. They should also undergo regular evaluations to see if they have improved while being in prison, and if they will be ready to return to the community when they are granted release. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The inmateÃ¢â¬â¢s health and nutrition is an important part in running a prison. The inmates should be fed properly, and also their emotional status should not be ignored, and it should be taken into account.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Working Women in the Victorian Middle-Class Charles DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ character Miss Abbey Potterson is Ã¢â¬Å"some sixty and oddÃ¢â¬ years old, obviously unmarried (Miss), and a business owner (she owns a bar). Despite the fact that Victorian middle-class women were supposed to aspire to idleness, a growing number of women were becoming employed in the 19 th century for a number of reasons. The growing number of Ã¢â¬Å"redundantÃ¢â¬ (unmarried, like Miss Potterson) and widowed women were rarely in a position to be ladies of leisure (Hudson). Although these women were almost always lower middle-class, they still strived for employment above that of the laboring classes. Evidence of Working Women The census, which began to include occupations in 1841, is the most obvious source (Hudson). However this information is often inaccurate, since the classification of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment was often contradictory and inconsistent. Female work in a family business was sometimes deliberately excluded from the record (Hudson). Trade directories supplement the census information. They suggest that a surprisingly high number of women ran businesses, particularly in millinery and dressmaking, in inn-keeping, provisioning, grocery trades and teaching. Trade directories from the period also reveal examples of women running businesses traditionally associated only with men (like Miss Potterson). This minority indicates the boundaries that were being pushed regarding what was proper and improper for women to do (Hudson). Work Available to Women Female employment in the 1850s, 60s and 70s was the most recorded until after World War II (Hudson). Domestic service of all kinds was the single largest employer of women, textile and clothing occupations were a close secon... ...fied: Ã¢â¬Å"The rampant vice in English society--all men know it, and women too, and both know the others know it--is neither fastness, immodesty, or impropriety of any kind: it is pretence. This it is that makes our society for the most part parvenu society,--burthensome, troublesome, tediousÃ¢â¬ (Cope). Works Cited Cope, Virginia. The Ladies. Retreived 16 March 2005. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ladies/ladyhome.html Ã¢â¬Å"Employment for Females.Ã¢â¬ The Ladies. 16 April 1872. pg.35. Retrieved 16 March 2005. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ladies/pressex.html#donkey Hudson, Pat. Ã¢â¬Å"WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Work.Ã¢â¬ BBC History. Published 1 January 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2005. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/welfare/womens_work_01.shtml Larsen, Ashley. Victorian Women in the Work Force. Retrieved 16 March 2005. http://jamaica.u.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/lars-hold.htm
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Praising the King of Pop Michael Jackson Introduction: Perhaps no one has received this title in history Ã¢â¬Å"the king of popÃ¢â¬ , now a days many artistÃ¢â¬â¢s have arisen and have performed but not as the king of pop known worldwide and in history, has dominated the world of pop as Michael Jackson. Born on August 29, 1958 to a strict working class family in Gary, Indiana. Michael Jackson has gone through personal scandal, family squabbles and numerous career quakes but Michael Joseph Jackson remains one of the planet's best known figures. Jackson has spent almost his entire life as a public performer. He was the founder member of the Jackson Five at the age of four, soon becoming their lead vocalist and frontman. This implies Jackson has started his career at a very early age to gradually become one good public personality and famous. For this and for other reasons, he deserves praise and to be praised. Narrative: Michael Jackson was born and grew up in a strict working family in Gary, Indiana, USA on August 29, 1958. Jackson showed an early interest in music as did most of his family. His mother sang frequently, his father Joseph Jackson played guitar in a small-time R&B band, his older brothers often sang and played with their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s guitar. Soon the family singing group started, with Michael as the main puppet and four of his older brothers. Ã¢â¬Å"After all it seemed to be the simplest way to earn money to feed so many kids said Joseph JacksonÃ¢â¬ . If you can't feed your kids teach them how to feed themselves. Anyway Michael soon outgrew his brothers with his unique talent not just for singing but for dancing as well. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s father, who is a controlling supposedly abusive father. "My father beat me. It was difficult to take being beaten and then going onstage. "He was strict; very hard and stern." Says Michael Jackson. He pushed his sons including Michael into forming a group called the Jackson five. Their group quickly arose from playing local talent shows to landing a contract with the renowned Motown label at the end of 1968. During the early '70s the group became well-known, with "baby", Michael as the lead singer of the group. This talent dragged on for decades and gradually getting better and better, Michael taking the lead and as the main source of income for the family for proving and presenting his talent to many music labels and organizations throughout the years.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Analyse how WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own imaginatively portray individuals who challenge the established values of their time. Literature is an evaluation of the established values of their time, a manifestation of the composerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives regarding key issues that characterised their zeitgeist. This is evident in Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s polemical essay, A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own (1929), in which she portrays male anxiety towards women during the post-WWI period.Similarly, Edward AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s 1962 satirical drama, WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s Afraid of Virginia Woolf (Afraid) projects an analogous fear of female dominance, although in post-WWII American society. In a further comparison, both composers focus on the importance of wealth in society, where Woolf considers the significance of material security with regards to fiction writing in English society in the 1920s, whilst Albee criticises materialistic values in relation to social conformity in American society in the 1960s.Since the late 19th century female suffrage movement that empowered women, men feared being displaced from their traditional positions of authority. Woolf conveys these established patriarchal values through A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own, in her examination of the phallocentric literary sphere of the 1920s, where anybody could write literature, Ã¢â¬Å"save they [were] not womenÃ¢â¬ . The symbolic title highlights womenÃ¢â¬â¢s need for material security as a pre-condition Ã¢â¬Å"to writ[ing] fictionÃ¢â¬ , arguing that historically, men have denied women opportunities for achieving economic equality.WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic use of simile reinforces her hypothesis that Ã¢â¬Å"if only Mrs Seton Ã¢â¬ ¦ had learnt the great art of making money and had left their money, like their fathers Ã¢â¬ ¦ to found fellowshipsÃ¢â¬ . This highlights the historical lack of educational and financial opportunities for women. Furthermore, Woolf blames patriarchal value s for institutionalising discriminatory practices in English society. At the fictional Ã¢â¬Å"OxbridgeÃ¢â¬ , a Beadle indicates that Ã¢â¬Å"this was the turf; there was the pathÃ¢â¬ , symbolising the established gender exclusion in academia. Her thoughts interrupted, she expresses disappointment Ã¢â¬Å"as they had sent my little fish into hidingÃ¢â¬ .Through this metaphor, Woolf implies that menÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"protection of their turfÃ¢â¬ denied women opportunities for creativity, portraying an ingrained contextual fear of female intelligence that was perceived as encroaching upon male dominance in every sphere of endeavour. AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporary political satire, Afraid, also portrays male and female rivalry, incorporating textual features such as intense drama and blunt stage directions to convey the fierce gender conflict of his time. Whilst both texts were composed in post-war periods, AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s drama savagely critiques the established societal values of sma ll town American society in the 1960s.This is evident when Martha criticises George as Ã¢â¬Å"a greatÃ¢â¬ ¦bigÃ¢â¬ ¦fatÃ¢â¬ ¦FLOP! Ã¢â¬ unable to rise up the departmental ranks. The use of crude colloquial language and aggressive stage directions accentuates her frustration as she Ã¢â¬Å"spits the word at GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s backÃ¢â¬ , reflecting MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s authority over him, which symbolises womenÃ¢â¬â¢s growing influence in mainstream American society in the 1960s. Furthermore, Martha recalls the Ã¢â¬Å"boxing match we hadÃ¢â¬ in an attempt to humiliate him, an allegory for the gendered power struggle.George reacts negatively, and to regain superiority, he Ã¢â¬Å"takes Ã¢â¬ ¦ a short-barrelled shotgun Ã¢â¬ ¦ aims it at Ã¢â¬ ¦ Martha Ã¢â¬ ¦ [and] pulls the triggerÃ¢â¬ . Coupled with this stage direction, AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of exclamatory punctuation in GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s childish point-scoring of Ã¢â¬Å"Pow! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re dead! Ã¢â¬ signifies his desperation to recover his masculinity. In this way, Albee portrays the constant quarrelling between George and Martha as a symbol of anxiety and dysfunctionality in America in the 1960s, depicting the national paranoia associated with the Cold War and nuclear warfare.Just as Woolf and Albee represent the gender conflict in post-war societies, they also criticise the wealth inequality and the greed of their time. Whilst Woolf reasons that discrimination against women often prevented them from writing fiction, she also considers that poor material conditions likewise limited their contribution to literature. Through the use of the modal verb to emphasise the importance of financial security, she expresses her contention regarding material needs that Ã¢â¬Å"a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fictionÃ¢â¬ .The anecdote of the tailless cat is symbolic of the distractions that interrupted women in their writing, thus Woolf highlights the need for the privacy of a room of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own in order to Ã¢â¬Å"think of things in themselvesÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, she decides that Ã¢â¬Å"500 pounds a year for ever Ã¢â¬ ¦ seemed infinitely more importantÃ¢â¬ than the suffrage movement as it was more conducive to her writing fiction. No longer working Ã¢â¬Å"like a slaveÃ¢â¬ , WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s simile highlights that Ã¢â¬Å"food, house, and clothing are forever mineÃ¢â¬ , reflecting the value of financial security in English society in the 1920s.Thus, Woolf sustains her thesis and highlights the importance of money and privacy, conveying the established attitude that a secure income ensured creative and intellectual freedom in English society. Alternatively, AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s political allegory reflects his criticism of the materialistic mores of American society in the 1960s, portraying human shallowness in a dramatic appraisal of the American Dream, an idea which has resonated within society since the founding of America.It epitomises a conservative nati onal ethos that entailed the possibility of universal prosperity and the pursuit of happiness for all, thus many individuals sought to increase their wealth and social status. This materialistic idea is conveyed through Nick, who crudely boasts, Ã¢â¬Å"my wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s got some moneyÃ¢â¬ . In characterising Nick as the typical shallow Ã¢â¬ËjockÃ¢â¬â¢, Albee undermines this concept of the Ã¢â¬Ëself-made manÃ¢â¬â¢, dramatising a soulless aspect of the American Dream. Additionally, Martha criticises GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s salary, mirroring the contextual attitudes of middle-class America, when status was associated with high income levels.She sneers at George, advising him not Ã¢â¬Å"to waste good liquorÃ¢â¬ ¦not on your salaryÃ¢â¬ . Here, MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s mocking tone captures her disappointment as she Ã¢â¬Å"hope[s] that was an empty bottleÃ¢â¬ . However, the Ã¢â¬Å"empty bottleÃ¢â¬ also symbolises her despair as George is only Ã¢â¬Å"on an Associate ProfessorÃ¢â¬â¢s sala ryÃ¢â¬ . This brings to mind the social importance of income but unlike in WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s society, where womenÃ¢â¬â¢s economic security may liberate creativity, here economic success serves as a status symbol within the American Dream.Thus, literature, with its distinct forms and features, is influenced by varying contexts, portraying similar concerns that enhance our understanding of the established values of the time. WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s polemic, A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own (1929), may differ textually and contextually from Albee's WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962), which portrays a savage attack on American values, but both texts reflect male fear of women due to their growing influence in post war societies. Furthermore, they focus on the importance of wealth with regard to literary creativity in English society in the 1920s and the realisation of the American Dream during the 1960s.